Cathodic protection (CP) coupons are most effective when the coupon is placed within a couple centimeters of the reference electrode membrane. This reduces the length of the electrolyte path thus reducing the amount of voltage drop error incorporated in the potential measurement. Concentric CP coupons are a special type of CP coupon in which the reference electrode sensing port is located in the center of the CP coupon. This reduces the electrolyte path length to about a millimeter which, for all practical purposes, eliminates voltage drop error in the measurement.
All reference electrodes allow ions to diffuse through the membrane. It is the diffusion of these ions which allows the measurement circuit current to pass through the membrane. The amount of material being leached from the electrode is extremely small and it will rapidly diffuse into the surrounding environment. However, when the reference electrode membrane is located within a couple millimeters of a steel coupon surface, the ions do not move away quickly enough which can alter the corrosion behavior of the steel coupon.
There are three types of reference electrodes commonly used for cathodic protection measurements: copper/copper sulfate, silver/silver chloride and zinc/zinc sulfate. Any of these electrodes can be used with CP coupons where there is a couple centimeter gap between the electrode sensing port and the coupon surface. The only type of reference which can be successfully used with concentric CP coupons is the zinc/zinc sulfate reference as nothing leaching from it will affect the steel corrosion behavior. Chloride ions leaching from silver/silver chloride reference electrodes changes the type of corrosion product formed on steel and hence the potential. Copper ions leaching from a copper/copper sulfate reference electrode will spontaneously plate out on the steel surface creating a strong galvanic cell which alters the potential. This phenomenon, known as cementation, is further discussed in our Technical Note TN 13 Copper Deposition on Steel.