Portable, liquid filled, reference electrodes must be cleaned and refilled regularly. The copper sulfate solution contains dissolved oxygen. Oxygen gradually reacts with the copper to form copper oxide which shifts the potential of the reference. The more copper oxide the greater the shift. Potential shifts of up to 10 mV in a week’s time are possible. This problem can be prevented by cleaning and refilling the reference electrode regularly (preferably weekly but at least monthly). The newer gelled filled portable reference electrodes do not have this problem since the element and gel have minimal contact with the atmosphere.
Another problem occurs on reference electrodes that have a ceramic tip. The insulating tip is porous so that the copper sulfate solution will leak through and allow conductance. If the tip dries out, the holes can become partially plugged with copper sulfate salt which increases the electrical resistance through the reference. The process is progressive, with the resistance increasing a bit more with each dry-down until, eventually, the tip becomes fully insulating (totally resistive). Boiling the ceramic tip in distilled water for an hour or two will restore it. A similar problem to this occurs when the ceramic tip becomes plugged with either dirt or oil. When this happens, the ceramic tip should be replaced.
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